Comparison of transmission and transflectance mode FTIR imaging of biological tissue
FTIR microscopy is a powerful technique which has become popular due to its ability to provide complementary information during histopathological assessment of biomedical tissue samples. Recently however, questions have been raised on the suitability of the transflection mode of operation for clinical diagnosis due to the so called Electric Field Standing Wave (EFSW) effect. In this paper we compare chemical images measured in transmission and transflection from prostate tissue obtained from five different patients, and discuss the variability of the spectra acquired with each sampling modality. We find that spectra obtained in transflection undergo a non-linear distortion, i.e. non-linear variations in absorption band strength across the spectra, and that there are significant differences in spectra measured from the same area of tissue depending on the mode of operation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to highlight that poorer discrimination between benign and cancerous tissue is obtained in transflection mode. In addition we show that use of second derivatives, while qualitatively improves spectral discrimination, does not completely alleviate the underlying problem.